Methods and apparatus for calculating electromagnetic scattering properties of a structure and for reconstruction of approximate structures


Disclosed is a method for reconstructing a parameter of a lithographic process. The method comprises the step of designing a preconditioner suitable for an input system comprising the difference of a first matrix and a second matrix, the first matrix being arranged to have a multi-level structure of at least three levels whereby at least two of said levels comprise a Toeplitz structure. One such preconditioner is a block-diagonal matrix comprising a BTTB structure generated from a matrix-valued inverse generating function. A second such preconditioner is determined from an approximate decomposition of said first matrix into one or more Kronecker products.

Frank Schneider
Frank Schneider
Postdoctoral Researcher

I am a postdoc in the Methods of Machine Learning group at the University of Tübingen working on training methods for deep learning.